October 2021 Update: The resources and information on this website are no longer actively updated, however, they are still a great starting point for relevant sleep information!
Sleep On It
Julia Ammer TED Talk
Wendy Troxel TED Talk
Buysse, D. J. (2014). Sleep health: Can we define it? Does it matter? Sleep, 37(1), 9-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3902880/
This journal article discusses the concept of sleep health and how it might be measured.
Carskadon, M. A. (2011). Sleep’s effects on cognition and learning in adolescence. In H. P. A. Van Dongen and Kerkhof, G. A. (Eds.), Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 190 (pp. 137-143). Amsterdam, The Netherlands. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21531249
This study looked at the effects of sleep on cognition and learning in adolescence. It found that insufficient sleep can impair acquisition and retrieval under certain conditions. The author states, “Insufficient sleep can also threaten learning by jeopardizing this part of the memory formation process.”
Carskadon, M. A. (2011). Sleep in adolescents: The perfect storm. Pediatric Clinics North America, 58(3), 637-47. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21600346
This article explains that the loss of sleep is not driven by a lesser need for sleep in teens. Rather, the loss of sleep comes from biologic, psychological, and socio-cultural influences.
Carskadon, M. A., Wolfson, A. R., Acebo, C., Tzischinsky, O., & Seifer, R. (1998). Adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness at a transition to early school days. Sleep, 21(8), 871-81. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9871949
This study looked at the effect of early school days on adolescent sleep patterns, circadian timing, and sleepiness. It found that and early school start time was linked to daytime sleepiness and significant sleep deprivation.
Frenda, S. J., & Fenn, K. M. (2016). Sleep less, think worse: The effect of sleep deprivation on working memory . Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5, 463–469. http://psychology.psy.msu.edu/SleepLab/Files/Frenda-Fenn-2016.pdf
This journal article reviews research on the effects of sleep deprivation on working memory. It finds, as indicated by the title, that inadequate sleep is linked to poorer cognition and memory.
Gruber, R., Somerville, G., Bergmame, L., Fontil, L., & Paquin, S. (2016). School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Sleep Medicine,21, 93-100. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2016.01.012
This study found that the implementation of a school-based educational program had significant positive effects on school-age children. Education helps!
Hafner, M., Stepanek, M., & Troxel, W. M. (2017). Later school start times in the U.S.: An economic analysis. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2109.html
This report examines the economic effects of shifting US school start times to 8:30 am and finds that it would be a cost effective measure.
Ludden, A. B., & Wolfson, A. R. (2010). Understanding adolescent caffeine use: Connecting use patterns with expectancies, reasons, and sleep. Health Education & Behavior, 37(3), 330-342. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19858312
This journal article looks at caffeine use in adolescents and its relationship to sleep.
Marco, C. A., Wolfson, A. R., Sparling, M., & Azuaje, A. (2011). Family socioeconomic status and sleep patterns of young adolescents. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10(1), 70-80. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22250780
This study explored the relationship between the sleep patterns of adolescents and their family’s socioeconomic status. The results indicated that lower socioeconomic conditions are linked to significantly poorer sleep outcomes.
National Sleep Foundation. (2006). 2006 Sleep in America Poll: Summary of Findings. Washington, DC. https://sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/2006_summary_of_findings.pdf
This report includes findings from a national poll on teen sleep.
Paller, K. A. (2018, June 22). Do House-Elves Clean Your Brain While You Sleep? https://kids.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/frym.2018.00023
This article addresses the relationship between sleep and memory. Great for younger readers!
Paruthi, S., Brooks, L. J., D’Ambrosio, C., Hall, W. A., Kotagal, S., Lloyd, R. M., Malow, B. A., Maski, K., Nichols, C., Quan, S. F., Rosen, C. L., Troester, M. M., & Wise, M. S. (2016). Recommended amount of sleep for pediatric populations: A consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 12, 785-786. http://www.aasmnet.org/Resources/pdf/Pediatricsleepdurationconsensus.pdf
This position statement includes guidelines for amount of teen sleep. It states, “Teenagers 13 to 18 years of age should sleep 8 to 10 hours per 24 hours on a regular basis to promote optimal health.”
Singleton, R. A., & Wolfson, A. R. (2009). Alcohol consumption, sleep, and academic performance among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(3), 355-63. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371486
This study looked into the relationship between sleep, alcohol consumption, and academic performance. It finds that alcohol consumption is a significant predictor of four sleep patterns: the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep, the difference between weekday and weekend nighttime sleep hours (oversleep), and the difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes (bedtime delay). It also finds that sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and alcohol consumption were predictors of GPA (Grade Point Average).
Thomas, N. (2018, October 1). Less sleep associated with risky behavior in teens, study says
This news article summarizes the findings of a recent study on the relationship between sleep and risky behavior in teens.
Van Dyk, R. R., Zhang, N., Catlin, , P. A., Cornist, K., McAlister, S., Whitacre, C., Beebe, D. W., (2017). Feasibility and emotional impact of experimentally extending sleep in short-sleeping adolescents. Sleep, 40(9). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28934531
In this study, teenagers who regularly slept 5-7 hours on school nights were prescribed a 1.5 hour per night sleep time increase. Results found that after the increased sleep time, teenagers reported reduced symptoms of sleepiness, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion.
The National Sleep Foundation
Start School Later
This Detroit based organization works to provide sleep education to economically disadvantaged children and their families.
Sleep for Science
This organization, based at the E. P. Bradley Hospital and Brown Medical School, focuses on conducting and disseminating information about research.